Public Administration Paradox & Transformation

December 24, 2008

Public Administration Paradox

The Public Administration at the third millenium has changed from global, national or local platforms to politics, economics and cultural perspectives which is if we take some examples from any develop countries , there is a simultaneous process of changing that moves faster, chains systems reactions and makes global effects. Technology, another variables that cannot be left by the administrators, has different effects and developments in the government works such as e-government, online systems, etc. By the technology assistance, the government circles of works can be adapted to face any global changes at any scope.

Entering the third millenium, structures and values of the public administration can be looked from three perspectives : political democracy, societal transformation and technological progress.

The values, divided into two aspects. First, is social values that involves public participations and democracy to challenge the structure of authority and control. Second, is the basic values of public administration, such a public policy, public finance, organization and management, etc.

The question is how the core of public administration connected with values and needs in the large community, for example a state?

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The Transformations of The Concepts

1. First Transformation

There is a complex differentiation between public administration function and social needs. The differentiation must be broken in the changing lines to be two aspects : structure and hierarchy.

To make the successful public administration, the first step is to search the scale and complexity of modern government then we know how is public administration will work in the state. Two, public administration that settles in the states should absorb the process effectively to accomplish a goal. Finally, public administration needs to be develop and increase the government working systems.

2. Second Transformation

Structure and hierarchy have to be transformed to another levels. The previous government’s perspectives of public needs and public services should be changed to a “new one” perspective. The answers are networking and stakeholders’ participation.

With the works of networking, government can make a good relationship with another groups, for example government from another country, private sectors, investors, and the shareholders’ stocks and bonds.

Stakeholders participation also have a good idea to make the better works of the government, because this elite groups needs to think about public needs and development as well as the government does, for a better future.


What Is Marketed?

December 23, 2008
Marketing people are involved in marketing 10 types of entities : goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information, and ideas.

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Goods, Physical goods constitute the bulk of most countries production and marketing effort. Each year, U.S. companies alone market billions of fresh, canned, bagged, and frozen food products and millions of cars, refrigerators, television sets, machine and various other mainstays of a modern economy. not only do companies market their goods, but thanks in part to the internet, even individuals can effectively market goods.

Services, As companies advance, a growing proportion of their activities is focused on the production of services. The U.S. economy today consists of a 70-30 services-to-goods mix-services include the work of airlines, hotels, car rental firms, barbers and beauticians, maintenance and repair people, as well as professionals working within or for companies, such as accountants, bankers, lawyers, engineers, doctors, software programmers, and management consultants. Many market offerings consist of a variable mix of goods and services. At a fast food restaurant, for example, the customer consumes both a product and a services.

Events, Marketers promote time-based events, such as major trade shows, artistic performance, and company anniversaries. Global sporting events such as the Olympics or World Cup are promoted aggresively to both companies and fans.  There is a whole profession or meeting planners who work out the details of an event and make sure it comes off perfectly.

Experiences, By orchestrting several services and goods, a firm can create, stage, and market experiences. Walt Disney World Magic Kingdom represents experiential marketing: Customers visit a fairy kingdom, a pirate ship, or a haunted house. So does the Hard Rock Cafe, where customers can enjoy a meal or see a band in a live concert. There is also a market customized experiences, such as spending a week at a baseball camp playing with some retired baseball greats, paying to conduct the chicago symphony Orchestra for five minutes, or climbing Mount Everest.

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Persons, Celebrity marketing is a major business. Today, every major film star has an agent, personal manager, and tie to a public relation agency. Artists, misician, CEOs, physicians, high-profile lawyers, and finaciers, and others professional are also getting help from celebrity marketers. Some people have done a masterful job of marketing themselves -think of Madonna, Oprah Winfrey, the Rolling Stones, Aerosmith, and Michael Jordan. Management consultant Tom Peters, himself a master at self-branding, has advised each person to become a “brand.”

Places. Cities, stats, regions, and whole nations compete actively to attract tourist, factories, company headquatters, and new residents. Place marketers include economic development specialists, real estate agents, commercial banks, local business associations, and advertising and public relations agencies. To fuel their high-tech industries and spawn entrepreneurship, cities such as Indianapolis, charlotte, and raleigh-durham are wooing 20 to 29 year-old through ads, PR, and other communications. Louisvikke, Kentucky, spends $ 1 million annually on e-mails, events, and networking appraches to convince 20-somethings of the city’s quality of life and other advantages.

Properties. Properties are intangible rights of ownership of either real property (real estate) or financial property (stocks and bonds). Properties are bought and sold, and this requires marketing. real estate agents work for property owners or sellers or buy residential or commercial real estate. Investment companies and banks are involved in marketing security to both institutional and individual investors.

Organizations. Organizations actively work to build a strong, favorabke, and unique image in the minds of their target publics. Companies sp4end money on corporate identity ads. Phillips, the Dutch electronics company, puts out ads with the tag line “Let’s Make Things Better.” In the United Kingdom, Tesco’s “Every Little Bit Helps” marketing program has vaulted it to the top of the supermarket chains in that country. Universities, museums, performing arts organizations, and non-profits all use marketing to boost their public images and compete for audiences and funds.

Information. Information can be produced and marketed as a product. This is essentially what schools and universities produce and distribute at a price to parents, students, and communities. Encyclopedias and most nonfiction books. market information. Magazines such as Road and Track and Byte supply information about the car and computer worlds, respectively. The production, packaging, and distribution of information is one of our society’s major industries. Even companies thet sell physical product attempt to add value through the use of information. For example, the CEO of Siemens Medical Systems, Tom McCausland, says, “[our product] is not necessarily an X-ray or an MRI, but information. Our business is really health-care information technology, and our end product is relly an electronik patient record: information on lab tests, pathology, and drugs as well as voice dictation.”

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Ideas. Every market offering includes a basic idea. Charles Revson  of Revlon observed: “In the factory, we make cosmetic; in the store we sell hope.” Products and services are platforms for delivering some idea or benefit. Social marketers are busy promoting such ideas as “Friiends Don’t Let Friends Drive Drunk” and “A Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Waste.”Sources :Kotler & Keller. 2006. Marketing Management. New Jersey : Pearson International Edition.


Administrasi Publik di Swedia

December 22, 2008

Penulis mendapatkan ide penulisan artikel ini dari beberapa teman yang berasal dari Jankoping, Swedia serta perkuliahan dari Bapak Pius Suratman Kartasasmita, Ph.D di Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Bandung sekitar tahun 2006.

Administrasi Publik sebagai sebuah sistem serta model pemerintahan memberikan gambaran sebuah negara berikut dengan sistem pemerintahan, birokrasi dan parlemen. Swedia, salah satu negara di kawasan Skandinavia dapat dijadikan pembanding dalam hal sistem administrasi publik, khusus nya dengan Indonesia.

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Swedia adalah negara demokratik dengan sistem parlementer yang disebut dengan The Riksdag. Swedia juga merupakan negara monarki dengan raja nya yaitu, King Carl XVI Gustaf. Sistem pemerintahan dipegang langsung oleh perdana menteri, namun meski begitu King Carl XVI Gustaf tetap memiliki kekuatan politik yang cukup besar, serta merepresentasikan sebuah kekuasaan.

The Riksdag dengan 149 anggota nya, merumuskan kebijakan-kebijakan pajak, pengeluaran anggaran pemerintah, serta mendukung kegiatan pemerintah.

The Riksdag juga menunjuk perdana menteri, yang kemudian menyusun kabinet beserta menteri-menteri nya. Bersama dengan perdana menteri, The Riksdag juga membentuk sebuah pemerintahan. Pemerintahan yang mengatur negara bertanggung jawab kepada The Riskdag.

Kemudian, keputusan-keputusan politik diimplementasikan oleh beberapa pemegang kekuasaan, yaitu administrasi dan perusahaan publik (BUMN).

Sistem Administrasi Pemerintahan di Swedia : Bentuk Tiga Tingkatan

Swedia memiliki tiga tahapan di pemerintahannya yaitu: Nasional, Regional dan Lokal. Sebagai tambahan, ini adalah bentuk yang dibutuhkan di Eropa untuk kepentingan setelah Swedia masuk ke dalam Uni-Eropa. Pemilihan umum atas anggota dewan pusat dan daerah diselenggarakan setiap 4 tahun, para pemilih memilih siapa yang akan duduk di pemerintahan dan administrasi.

Level Nasional

Pada Level Nasional, masyarakat Swedia direpresentasikan oleh The Riksdag yang memiliki kekuatan legislatif (DPR). Rancangan Undang-Undang yang dibuat oleh pemerintah yang berupa implementasi-implementasi pengambilan keputusan disahkan oleh The Riksdag. Pemerintah mendapatkan bantuan dari The Riksdag dalam menjalankan negara, menentukan jumlah kementerian, dan 300 agen pemerintah pusat dan persoalan administrasi publik.

Level Regional

Swedia di bagi atas 21 propinsi (negara bagian). Persoalan politik di dalam level ini dipegang oleh Dewan propinsi, yang merupakan para pembuat keputusan yang di pilih langsung oleh masyarakat setempat. Beberapa kekuasaan publik juga dioperasikan pada level regional dan local, contohnya adalah permasalahan perbatasan propinsi.

Level Lokal

Swedia memiliki 290 kabupaten / daerah (municipalities). Setiap daerah memiliki agenda pemilihan sendiri, dewan daerah, yang mengambil keputusan dalam masalah-masalah daerah. Dewan daerah membentuk dewan eksekutif daerah, yang memimpin dan mengkoordinasikan pekerjaan daerah.

Tambahan : Level Eropa

Ketika masuk ke dalam Uni-Eropa pada tahun 1995, Swedia membentuk level pemerintahan yang berkelanjutan : level eropa. Sebagai anggota Uni-Eropa, Swedia bertugas dalam mengambil bagian di dalam proses pembuatan keputusan ketika peraturan persemakmuran disusun dan disetujui.

Sweden Continent

Swedia juga direpresentasikan oleh pemerintahannya di dalam kementerian untuk dewan eropa yang mana merupakan anggota dari struktur pembuat keputusan di dalam Uni-Eropa.

Divisi Pertanggungjawaban antar level dari pemerintah

Konstitusi Swedia memiliki hak provisi dalam mendefinisikan hubungan antara pembuat keputusan dan kekuatan eksekutif. Pemerintahan lokal swedia tahun 1992 meregulasikan divisi ini kedalam minicipalities dan organisasi serta kekuatan municipalities dan dewan daerah.

Divisi ini dibagi berdasarkan tugas antara pemerintahan pusat dan daerah yang telah berubah selama beberapa tahun belakangan ini. Aktivfitasnya secara langsung telah didelegasikan dari pemerintah pusat ke pemerintah daerah.

Pemerintah telah menunjuk komite parlemen, komite pertanggungjawaban sektor publik, yang telah diinstruksikan untuk mengawasi divisi pertanggungjawaban antar level pemerintahan.

Sources :
Swedish Public Administration – http://www.sjv.se/home/swedishpublicadministration.4.7502f61001ea08a0c7fff131176.html
http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2858


IKEA : Integrated Information Achitecture

December 20, 2008

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IKEA is a privately-held, international home products retailer that sells flat pack furniture, accessories, bathrooms and kitchens at retail stores around the world. The company, which pioneered flat-pack design furniture at affordable prices, is now the world’s largest furniture manufacturer.

The company distributes its products through its retail outlets. The chain has 293 stores in 36 countries, most of them in Europe, the United States, Canada, Asia and Australia. 2006 saw the opening of 16 new stores. A total of at least 30 openings or relocations are planned for 2008. IKEA is one of the few store chains to have locations both in Israel and in other Middle Eastern nations.

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IKEA was founded in Älmhult, Sweden, in 1943 by Ingvar Kamprad, when he was 17. The acronym IKEA is incidentally similar to the Greek word οικία [oikia] (home) and to the Finnish word oikea (true, correct, right), but was originally an abbreviation for “Ingvar Kamprad Elmtaryd Agunnaryd” which is the initial letters of his first and last name, the farm where he grew up and the town he lived in.

Originally, IKEA sold pens, wallets, picture frames, table runners, watches, jewelry and nylon stockings or practically anything Kamprad found a need for that he could fill with a product at a reduced price. Furniture was first added to the IKEA product range in 1948 and, in 1955, IKEA began to design its own furniture. The company motto is: “To create a better everyday life for the many people.”

At first, Kamprad sold his goods out of his home and by mail order, but eventually a store was opened in the nearby town of Älmhult. It was also the location for the first IKEA “warehouse” store which came to serve as a model for IKEA establishments elsewhere. On 23 March 1963, the first store outside Sweden was opened in Asker, a Norwegian municipality outside Oslo.

The first IKEA store was opened in Sweden in 1958. The first stores outside Sweden were opened in Norway (1963) and Denmark (1969). The 1970s saw the spread of stores to other parts of Europe, with the first store outside Scandinavia opening in Switzerland (1973), followed by Germany (1974). During the same decade, stores were opened in other parts of the world, including Japan (1974), Australia and Hong Kong (1975), Canada (1976) and Singapore (1978). Germany, with 43 stores, is IKEA’s biggest market, followed by the United States, with 34. IKEA now has 293 stores in 36 countries. However, the company has thus far not shown much of a presence in the developing countries.

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*World Map showing locations of IKEA stores in 2007. Green represents countries with stores in operation and blue shows proposed locations.

Product

Furniture

IKEA furniture is well known for its modern, utilitarian design. Much of IKEA’s furniture is designed to be assembled by the consumer rather than being sold pre-assembled. IKEA claims this permits them to reduce costs and use of packaging by not shipping air; the volume of a bookcase, for example, is considerably less if it is shipped unassembled rather than assembled. This is also a practical point for many of the chain’s European customers, where public transport is commonly used; the flat-pack distribution methods allow for easier transport via public transport from the store to a customer’s home for assembly.

IKEA contends that it has been a pioneering force in sustainable approaches to mass consumer culture. Kamprad refers to the concept as “democratic design,” meaning that the company applies an integrated approach to manufacturing and design (see also environmental design). In response to the explosion of human population and material expectations in the 20th and 21st century, the company implements economies of scale, capturing material streams and creating manufacturing processes that hold costs and resource use down, such as the extensive use of particle board. The intended result is flexible, adaptable home furnishings, scalable both to smaller homes and dwellings as well as large houses.

Houses

IKEA has also expanded their product base to include flat-pack houses, in an effort to cut prices involved in a first-time buyer’s home. The product, named BoKlok was launched in Sweden in 1996 in a joint venture with Skanska. Now working in the Nordic countries and in UK, sites confirmed in England include London, Manchester, Leeds, Gateshead and Liverpool.

Family Mobile

On 8 August 2008, IKEA UK launched Family Mobile – a virtual mobile phone network which uses the T-mobile network.

Family Mobile is available to all UK IKEA Family members and offers UK calls for 9p per min and UK text messages for 6p each, with a minimum initial top up of £10. According to IKEA this made the network the cheapest pay as you go operator in the UK at time of launch – “at least 25 per cent cheaper than any other comparable prepay offer.” The service targets families and allows customers a number of SIM cards per account, so credit is shared among the different lines. Customers can order a free SIM at the Family Mobile website familymobile.co.uk.

As part of the launch for the service all 9500 UK employees were given a free mobile phone along with a free Family Mobile SIM card with £5 credit pre-loaded on 5 August 2008.

Manufacturing

Although IKEA household products and furniture are designed in Sweden, they are largely manufactured in developing countries to keep down costs. With suppliers in 50 countries, roughly 2/3 of purchasing is from Europe with about 1/3 from Asia. A small amount of products are produced in North America. Comparatively little production actually takes place in Sweden, though it still remains the fourth-largest supplier country (behind China, Poland and Italy). China accounts for about 2.5 times as much supply as Sweden. For most of its products, the final assembly is performed by the end-user (consumer).[Source : www.wikipedia.org]

Integrated Information Achitecture

Ikea’s actual approach to information is managed in different ways, according to the context: either the products’ catalogue, the website or the retail stores.

They begin by choosing their products at home on the website or on the paper catalogue, then they collect their products at the store, and the final step would be to assemble the items by themselves.

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For this reason it is even more important to create bridge experiences, which facilitate the passage from one domain to another.

– The Catalogue

The annual products’ catalogue is built on a hierarchic-enumerating classification: 15 classes highlighted by different colours and relative subclasses.

Characteristics:

Use of several division’s criteria.
Interference of different categories causing products’ repetitions displays.
No hierarchical relation of some subclasses with related classes (for example Flooring is under the class Textiles).
Labelling imprecision, found in the Italian catalogue, causes confusion and doubts, then…

“We can affirm that the catalogue’s information architecture is theoretically incoherent and chaotic, from a scientific point of view”

– The Matter of Coherence

Does this classification works anyway for Ikea customers?
Is it suitable for Ikea context?

  1. The main catalogue’s classes are created on customer’s demands and human cognitive models. For example:A potential buyer looking for a double bed will normally refer to the class “Bedroom”. But if the same customer wants to buy a cot for his baby, the same category wouldn’t be so obvious. The class “Children’s IKEA”, in this case, is a more appropriate reference.
  2. The categories’ order follows the degree of importance: the first ones are the most marketable according to business strategies and sales.

“The taxonomy is perfectly coherent

from the empiric-pragmatic point

of view,which is the most

important to make the information

retrieval easier”


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– Redesigning The Catalogue

In order to overcome the hierarchical relations’ infraction and ambiguous labelling problems, it’s important:
to create clear and suitable labels in appropriate language
to establish subclasses for each class in order to respect human mental associations
to avoid classes’ crossover

So, the new catalogue’s taxonomy should introduce these changes:
Kitchen” and “Dining” categories can be combined, as it happens inside the retail store. The same criterion can be used for “Wardrobes” and “Beds”: people usually associate them because of a matter of space. Someone who decides to buy furniture at Ikea, probably is not the owner of a big, luxury house.
Bigger attention to imprecise labels translation (found in the Italian catalogue) which may lead to misunderstandings and wrong interpretation.
Elimination of “Buying guides” category at the end of the catalogue. The technical information would be better consultable if attached at the end of each.

Source :

– Davide Potente & Erika Salvini, “Apple, IKEA and their integrated information Architecture” Presentation. Europe’s Fourth Information Architecture Summit Amsterdam, September 26-27 2008. Available at http://davidepotente.com/apple_ikea_integrated_ia.pdf


Managing Human Resources

December 5, 2008

Introduction

Most firm do not recruit such loyal and motivated employees, but these (Human Resources Management) are vital tasks in any organization. This chapter focuseson the quantity and quality of human resources. First we look at how human resources plan for, recruit, and select qualified employees. Next we look at training, appraising, and compresanting employees, aspect of  HRM designed to retain valued employees. Along the way, we’ll also consider the challanges of managing unionized and diverse employees.

The Nature of  Human Resources Management

HRM refers to all activities involved in determining an organizations human resources needs as well as acquiring, training, and compensating people to fill those needs.

HRM has increased in importance over the last few decades, in part because managers have developed a better understanding of human relation through the work of Maslow, Herzberg, and others. Moreover, the human resources themselves are changing. Employees today are concerned not only about how much a job pays; they are concerned also with job satisfaction, personal performance, leisure, the environment, and the future.

Planning for HRM

Next, managers analyze the job within the organization so they can match the human resorces to the available assignments.

Job Analysis refers to the determination through observation and study, of pertinent information about a job including specific tasks and necessary abilities, knowledge and skills.

Job Description refers to a formal, written explanation of a specific job, usually including job title, task, relationship with other job, physical and mental skills required duties and responsibilities, and working conditions.

Job Specification refers to a description of the qualification necassary for a specific job, in terms of education, experience, and personal and physical characteristic.

to be continue…

Source :

Ferrell, Hirt & Ferrel.2008. Business : A Changing World. New York : McGraw-Hill International Edition.


Business Communication : Listening

December 4, 2008

Good listeners pay attention, focus on the other speakers in a generous way rather than on themselves, avoid making assumptions, and listen for feelings as well as for facts.

Pay Attention

Need an energy to listen, have to resist distractions and tune out noise. Some listening errors happen because the hearer wasn’t paying enough attention to a key point. After a meetings with a client, a consultant waited for the client to send her more information that she would use to draft a formal proposal to do a job for the client. It turned out that the client thought the next move was up to the consultant. The consultant and the client had met together, but they hadn’t remembered the same facts.

What to do ?

1. Before the meeting, anticipate the answers you need to get. Make a mental or paper list of your questions.
2. At the end of conversation , check your understanding with the other person.
3. After the conversation, write down key points that affect deadlines or how work will be evaluated.

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