BMW Keep Workers On The Job

January 26, 2009

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When many automotive companies dismiss and fired workers, BMW take different policy for their workers, no fired in 2009, their policies is making short job hours for their workers, to reduce the productivity decrease this year. In This January 21th, BMW announce that their 26.000 workers in Germany will be have full job in this april.

In the year of 2008, BMW sales all over the world has decreased, in December, for example, their sales decreases almost at 25 % in the same periods compared to a year before (2007). In early of 2009, BMW believe their new release models, Z4 and Serie 7, will improving their sales again.


Bob Sadino : Pengusaha Beda…

January 24, 2009

Pria ini kerap di panggil dengan sebutan “om bob”, jum’at (23 Januari 2009) ini mendatangi kampus Magister Manajemen Universitas Gadjah Mada dalam acara talk show yang diadakan oleh Marketing Club MM UGM. Dalam kesempatan kali ini om bob banyak sekali menerima banyak pertanyaan dari kalangan akademisi dan pengusaha di daerah Yogyakarta, dan om bob menjawab nya dengan santai, serta tidak lupa om bob juga menggunakan pakaian “dinas” yaitu cela pendek.

Kilas Balik

Pria berpakaian ”dinas” celana pendek jin dan kemeja lengan pendek yang ujung lengannya tidak dijahit, ini adalah salah satu sosok entrepreneur sukses yang memulai usahanya benar-benar dari bawah dan bukan berasal dari keluarga wirausaha. Pendiri dan pemilik tunggal Kem Chicks (supermarket), ini mantan sopir taksi dan karyawan Unilever yang kemudian menjadi pengusaha sukses.

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Bob Sadino, Indonesia Entrepreneur & Kem Chicks Owner

Titik balik yang getir menimpa keluarga Bob Sadino. Bob rindu pulang kampung setelah merantau sembilan tahun di Amsterdam, Belanda dan Hamburg, Jerman, sejak tahun 1958. Ia membawa pulang istrinya, mengajaknya hidup serba kekurangan. Padahal mereka tadinya hidup mapan dengan gaji yang cukup besar.

Sekembalinya di tanah air, Bob bertekad tidak ingin lagi jadi karyawan yang diperintah atasan. Karena itu ia harus kerja apa saja untuk menghidupi diri sendiri dan istrinya. Ia pernah jadi sopir taksi. Mobilnya tabrakan dan hancur. Lantas beralih jadi kuli bangunan dengan upah harian Rp 100.

Suatu hari, temannya menyarankan Bob memelihara ayam untuk melawan depresi yang dialaminya. Bob tertarik. Ketika beternak ayam itulah muncul inspirasi berwirausaha. Bob memperhatikan kehidupan ayam-ayam ternaknya. Ia mendapat ilham, ayam saja bisa berjuang untuk hidup, tentu manusia pun juga bisa.

Sebagai peternak ayam, Bob dan istrinya, setiap hari menjual beberapa kilogram telor. Dalam tempo satu setengah tahun, ia dan istrinya memiliki banyak langganan, terutama orang asing, karena mereka fasih berbahasa Inggris. Bob dan istrinya tinggal di kawasan Kemang, Jakarta, di mana terdapat banyak menetap orang asing.

Tidak jarang pasangan tersebut dimaki pelanggan, babu orang asing sekalipun. Namun mereka mengaca pada diri sendiri, memperbaiki pelayanan. Perubahan drastis pun terjadi pada diri Bob, dari pribadi feodal menjadi pelayan. Setelah itu, lama kelamaan Bob yang berambut perak, menjadi pemilik tunggal super market (pasar swalayan) Kem Chicks. Ia selalu tampil sederhana dengan kemeja lengan pendek dan celana pendek.

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Bob Sadino’s style of business meeting

Bisnis pasar swalayan Bob berkembang pesat, merambah ke agribisnis, khususnya holtikutura, mengelola kebun-kebun sayur mayur untuk konsumsi orang asing di Indonesia. Karena itu ia juga menjalin kerjasama dengan para petani di beberapa daerah.

Bob percaya bahwa setiap langkah sukses selalu diawali kegagalan demi kegagalan. Perjalanan wirausaha tidak semulus yang dikira. Ia dan istrinya sering jungkir balik. Baginya uang bukan yang nomor satu. Yang penting kemauan, komitmen, berani mencari dan menangkap peluang.

Di saat melakukan sesuatu pikiran seseorang berkembang, rencana tidak harus selalu baku dan kaku, yang ada pada diri seseorang adalah pengembangan dari apa yang telah ia lakukan. Kelemahan banyak orang, terlalu banyak mikir untuk membuat rencana sehingga ia tidak segera melangkah. “Yang paling penting tindakan,” kata Bob.

Keberhasilan Bob tidak terlepas dari ketidaktahuannya sehingga ia langsung terjun ke lapangan. Setelah jatuh bangun, Bob trampil dan menguasai bidangnya. Proses keberhasilan Bob berbeda dengan kelaziman, mestinya dimulai dari ilmu, kemudian praktik, lalu menjadi trampil dan profesional.
Menurut Bob, banyak orang yang memulai dari ilmu, berpikir dan bertindak serba canggih, arogan, karena merasa memiliki ilmu yang melebihi orang lain.

Sedangkan Bob selalu luwes terhadap pelanggan, mau mendengarkan saran dan keluhan pelanggan. Dengan sikap seperti itu Bob meraih simpati pelanggan dan mampu menciptakan pasar. Menurut Bob, kepuasan pelanggan akan menciptakan kepuasan diri sendiri. Karena itu ia selalu berusaha melayani pelanggan sebaik-baiknya.

Bob menempatkan perusahaannya seperti sebuah keluarga. Semua anggota keluarga Kem Chicks harus saling menghargai, tidak ada yang utama, semuanya punya fungsi dan kekuatan.

Sekilas tentang om bob memberikan kita sebuah gambaran perjalan sukses pria Indonesia, di dalam talk show di MM UGM, om bob mengingatkan bahwa kegagalan adalah sebuah proses untuk kesuksesan, dan sebuah universitas kehidupan bagi para pelaku nya.

Some Source :

http://www.tokohindonesia.com/ensiklopedi/b/bob-sadino/index.shtml


HRM at La Furia Roja / Spain National Football Team

January 22, 2009

On June 29, 2008, Spain defeated Germany 1-0 in the finals of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship (2008 Euro Cup) at Vienna to win the coveted cup.

The last time they won this championship (or any other major championship) was way back in 1964. Since then, Spain had not managed to win any major international football (soccer) tournament despite having some of the best individual players in its ranks.

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Euro 2008 Champions Celebration, Madrid July 2008

In Spain, football is the most popular sport and has been played since the early 19th century. The nation has a glorious history in football. However, its domestic leagues earned more international acclaim than the national football team, which despite having a rich talent pool remained an underachiever on most occasions. Over the years, the Spanish national team gave many famous football legends to the football fraternity such as Alfredo Di Stefano, Kubala, Luis Suarez, Zamora, Santillana, Michel, and Butragueño, but when it came to performance as a national team, it found going past the initial rounds or the quarter finals in major tournaments such as the World Cup and the Euro Cup a hard task.

The Spanish national team’s lack of success in major tournaments was primarily attributed to a lack of team spirit and of the killer instinct.

Experts reasoned that the lack of team spirit was mainly due to the fact that there was intense rivalry between the different regions of Spain. They pointed out that the various regions were divided as far as culture and political outlook were concerned. In such a situation, it was very difficult for the members of the team to play as a unit, they said.

Some analysts considered the appointment of José Luis Aragonés Suárez (Aragonés) as coach of the Spanish national team a seminal moment in turning around the fortunes of the Spanish football team. Aragonés’ appointment came shortly after Spain’s debacle in the 2004 Euro Cup.

By the 2000’s, the underachievement of the Spanish national team had become somewhat legendary. Cesar Menotti, famous Argentine coach and football player, once famously said that Spain would never win anything in the international arena until the team decided if it wanted to be “the bull or the bullfighter”.

Enter Aragones

Shortly after Spain’s debacle in the 2004 Euro Cup, coach Iñaki Sáez was replaced by Aragonés. The veteran Spanish player and coach who was in his mid-60s, was entrusted with the responsibility of rebuilding the team for the 2006 World Cup (Refer to Exhibit I for a note on Aragonés). Aragonés soon realized that the major problem with the team was not lack of talent – in fact, it had some of the best players of the country – it was its lack of unity and positive attitude which were the big stumbling blocks.

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Luis Aragones, Spanish Euro 2008 Coach

Spain 2008 Cup Campaign

Before embarking on their 2008 Euro Cup campaign, the squad went to meet the 1964 winning team to draw inspiration from them. “We must go with a winning mentality. After that: what will be, will be. But psychologically, it must be nothing but positive to achieve the championship,” said Aragonés.

Analysts commented that the tournament saw a new Spanish team, made up of not just a bunch of talented players but a group of players who had learnt to put the team’s need ahead of individual aspirations.

Experts said that it was the team spirit of the Spanish team that had made the difference. The team had always had great players but this time, they played as a team rather than a group of individuals and placed the team’s interests above individual aspirations.

Check Sources


Marketing at Manchester United Cafe in Indonesia

January 11, 2009
Manchester United Football Clubs, one of the big four in The English Premier League has many extended business outside football competitions, such as merchandise, clothing and cafe.

Lets talk about The MU Cafe, in Paris Van Java Mall in Bandung, Indonesia, we can see one of MU cafe in Indonesia. This cafe is under licensed of Manchester United Food and Beverage (MUFB) is a Singapore holding company awarded the exclusive rights by Manchester United Football Club (“MUFC”) to own, operate, license and develop a chain of Manchester United restaurants & bar concept in Asia Pacific region. Territories include China, Singapore,Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, Thailand, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, India, and the Philippines. These restaurant & bar outlets mark MUFC’s first foray into casual dining business on an international scale.

Our goal is to establish Manchester United Restaurant & Bar as a leading operator and license of casual dining restaurant and bar in the Asia Pacific Region.For our venture In Indonesia – PT Manchester United Food & Beverage, our major local joint venture partner is Mr Tomy Winata of the Artha Graha Group.

Marketing at The Cafe

Manchester United Cafe promoted a Food and Beverages beside any kinds about MU at the cafe, sometimes MU cafe invite many artist to opened the event (big match or champion league final). This all about marketing, MU cafe also promoted they stuff will a different style, uniquely, and branded football things like history of manager, players and MU moments.

  • Then, they’re so many question about using Manchester United Brand is only focus to Manchester United Fans ? maybe this statement will answer the question…
“We understand the natural indifference that an outlet using the ‘Manchester United’ brand may bring to some which is why our focus will not be just about catering to Manchester United fans, but delivering great service and food standards to our customers – something which both groups of people would definitely value as part of their experience at any food and beverage outlet,” Andy Yun, CEO for MUFB, said.
  • Why Indonesia?..
Mr Peter Draper said, “Manchester United is one of the most famous names in world sport with a fan following of over 70 millions..44.many of whom live in Asia. We hope that with the opening of MURB (Manchester United Restaurant and Bar) in Jakarta, football fans in Indonesia will feel even closer to English football and the Red Devils. We think the enthusiasm for this project in Jakarta speaks volumes for the dynamism of the Indonesian people and their love of football. We’re obviously delighted to have such a flagship for the Club in one of the world’s fastest growing economies.”

“Jakarta was the obvious choice for expanding in this region as we are confident about the prospects of Jakarta, being the capital of Indonesia, and the excellent growth prospects due to the rising affluence of its population. Our restaurant and bar will also present the local and international community here with a brand new experience in sports themed dining and live entertainment”, said Mr John Lim, MUFB’s Chief Executive.

Sources :
http://www.manutd-cafe.com/media/PT_MUFBPressRelease_17Jan2006.pdf

http://www.marketing-interactive.com/news/10202


What Is Marketed?

December 23, 2008
Marketing people are involved in marketing 10 types of entities : goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information, and ideas.

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Goods, Physical goods constitute the bulk of most countries production and marketing effort. Each year, U.S. companies alone market billions of fresh, canned, bagged, and frozen food products and millions of cars, refrigerators, television sets, machine and various other mainstays of a modern economy. not only do companies market their goods, but thanks in part to the internet, even individuals can effectively market goods.

Services, As companies advance, a growing proportion of their activities is focused on the production of services. The U.S. economy today consists of a 70-30 services-to-goods mix-services include the work of airlines, hotels, car rental firms, barbers and beauticians, maintenance and repair people, as well as professionals working within or for companies, such as accountants, bankers, lawyers, engineers, doctors, software programmers, and management consultants. Many market offerings consist of a variable mix of goods and services. At a fast food restaurant, for example, the customer consumes both a product and a services.

Events, Marketers promote time-based events, such as major trade shows, artistic performance, and company anniversaries. Global sporting events such as the Olympics or World Cup are promoted aggresively to both companies and fans.  There is a whole profession or meeting planners who work out the details of an event and make sure it comes off perfectly.

Experiences, By orchestrting several services and goods, a firm can create, stage, and market experiences. Walt Disney World Magic Kingdom represents experiential marketing: Customers visit a fairy kingdom, a pirate ship, or a haunted house. So does the Hard Rock Cafe, where customers can enjoy a meal or see a band in a live concert. There is also a market customized experiences, such as spending a week at a baseball camp playing with some retired baseball greats, paying to conduct the chicago symphony Orchestra for five minutes, or climbing Mount Everest.

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Persons, Celebrity marketing is a major business. Today, every major film star has an agent, personal manager, and tie to a public relation agency. Artists, misician, CEOs, physicians, high-profile lawyers, and finaciers, and others professional are also getting help from celebrity marketers. Some people have done a masterful job of marketing themselves -think of Madonna, Oprah Winfrey, the Rolling Stones, Aerosmith, and Michael Jordan. Management consultant Tom Peters, himself a master at self-branding, has advised each person to become a “brand.”

Places. Cities, stats, regions, and whole nations compete actively to attract tourist, factories, company headquatters, and new residents. Place marketers include economic development specialists, real estate agents, commercial banks, local business associations, and advertising and public relations agencies. To fuel their high-tech industries and spawn entrepreneurship, cities such as Indianapolis, charlotte, and raleigh-durham are wooing 20 to 29 year-old through ads, PR, and other communications. Louisvikke, Kentucky, spends $ 1 million annually on e-mails, events, and networking appraches to convince 20-somethings of the city’s quality of life and other advantages.

Properties. Properties are intangible rights of ownership of either real property (real estate) or financial property (stocks and bonds). Properties are bought and sold, and this requires marketing. real estate agents work for property owners or sellers or buy residential or commercial real estate. Investment companies and banks are involved in marketing security to both institutional and individual investors.

Organizations. Organizations actively work to build a strong, favorabke, and unique image in the minds of their target publics. Companies sp4end money on corporate identity ads. Phillips, the Dutch electronics company, puts out ads with the tag line “Let’s Make Things Better.” In the United Kingdom, Tesco’s “Every Little Bit Helps” marketing program has vaulted it to the top of the supermarket chains in that country. Universities, museums, performing arts organizations, and non-profits all use marketing to boost their public images and compete for audiences and funds.

Information. Information can be produced and marketed as a product. This is essentially what schools and universities produce and distribute at a price to parents, students, and communities. Encyclopedias and most nonfiction books. market information. Magazines such as Road and Track and Byte supply information about the car and computer worlds, respectively. The production, packaging, and distribution of information is one of our society’s major industries. Even companies thet sell physical product attempt to add value through the use of information. For example, the CEO of Siemens Medical Systems, Tom McCausland, says, “[our product] is not necessarily an X-ray or an MRI, but information. Our business is really health-care information technology, and our end product is relly an electronik patient record: information on lab tests, pathology, and drugs as well as voice dictation.”

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Ideas. Every market offering includes a basic idea. Charles Revson  of Revlon observed: “In the factory, we make cosmetic; in the store we sell hope.” Products and services are platforms for delivering some idea or benefit. Social marketers are busy promoting such ideas as “Friiends Don’t Let Friends Drive Drunk” and “A Mind Is a Terrible Thing to Waste.”Sources :Kotler & Keller. 2006. Marketing Management. New Jersey : Pearson International Edition.


IKEA : Integrated Information Achitecture

December 20, 2008

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IKEA is a privately-held, international home products retailer that sells flat pack furniture, accessories, bathrooms and kitchens at retail stores around the world. The company, which pioneered flat-pack design furniture at affordable prices, is now the world’s largest furniture manufacturer.

The company distributes its products through its retail outlets. The chain has 293 stores in 36 countries, most of them in Europe, the United States, Canada, Asia and Australia. 2006 saw the opening of 16 new stores. A total of at least 30 openings or relocations are planned for 2008. IKEA is one of the few store chains to have locations both in Israel and in other Middle Eastern nations.

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IKEA was founded in Älmhult, Sweden, in 1943 by Ingvar Kamprad, when he was 17. The acronym IKEA is incidentally similar to the Greek word οικία [oikia] (home) and to the Finnish word oikea (true, correct, right), but was originally an abbreviation for “Ingvar Kamprad Elmtaryd Agunnaryd” which is the initial letters of his first and last name, the farm where he grew up and the town he lived in.

Originally, IKEA sold pens, wallets, picture frames, table runners, watches, jewelry and nylon stockings or practically anything Kamprad found a need for that he could fill with a product at a reduced price. Furniture was first added to the IKEA product range in 1948 and, in 1955, IKEA began to design its own furniture. The company motto is: “To create a better everyday life for the many people.”

At first, Kamprad sold his goods out of his home and by mail order, but eventually a store was opened in the nearby town of Älmhult. It was also the location for the first IKEA “warehouse” store which came to serve as a model for IKEA establishments elsewhere. On 23 March 1963, the first store outside Sweden was opened in Asker, a Norwegian municipality outside Oslo.

The first IKEA store was opened in Sweden in 1958. The first stores outside Sweden were opened in Norway (1963) and Denmark (1969). The 1970s saw the spread of stores to other parts of Europe, with the first store outside Scandinavia opening in Switzerland (1973), followed by Germany (1974). During the same decade, stores were opened in other parts of the world, including Japan (1974), Australia and Hong Kong (1975), Canada (1976) and Singapore (1978). Germany, with 43 stores, is IKEA’s biggest market, followed by the United States, with 34. IKEA now has 293 stores in 36 countries. However, the company has thus far not shown much of a presence in the developing countries.

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*World Map showing locations of IKEA stores in 2007. Green represents countries with stores in operation and blue shows proposed locations.

Product

Furniture

IKEA furniture is well known for its modern, utilitarian design. Much of IKEA’s furniture is designed to be assembled by the consumer rather than being sold pre-assembled. IKEA claims this permits them to reduce costs and use of packaging by not shipping air; the volume of a bookcase, for example, is considerably less if it is shipped unassembled rather than assembled. This is also a practical point for many of the chain’s European customers, where public transport is commonly used; the flat-pack distribution methods allow for easier transport via public transport from the store to a customer’s home for assembly.

IKEA contends that it has been a pioneering force in sustainable approaches to mass consumer culture. Kamprad refers to the concept as “democratic design,” meaning that the company applies an integrated approach to manufacturing and design (see also environmental design). In response to the explosion of human population and material expectations in the 20th and 21st century, the company implements economies of scale, capturing material streams and creating manufacturing processes that hold costs and resource use down, such as the extensive use of particle board. The intended result is flexible, adaptable home furnishings, scalable both to smaller homes and dwellings as well as large houses.

Houses

IKEA has also expanded their product base to include flat-pack houses, in an effort to cut prices involved in a first-time buyer’s home. The product, named BoKlok was launched in Sweden in 1996 in a joint venture with Skanska. Now working in the Nordic countries and in UK, sites confirmed in England include London, Manchester, Leeds, Gateshead and Liverpool.

Family Mobile

On 8 August 2008, IKEA UK launched Family Mobile – a virtual mobile phone network which uses the T-mobile network.

Family Mobile is available to all UK IKEA Family members and offers UK calls for 9p per min and UK text messages for 6p each, with a minimum initial top up of £10. According to IKEA this made the network the cheapest pay as you go operator in the UK at time of launch – “at least 25 per cent cheaper than any other comparable prepay offer.” The service targets families and allows customers a number of SIM cards per account, so credit is shared among the different lines. Customers can order a free SIM at the Family Mobile website familymobile.co.uk.

As part of the launch for the service all 9500 UK employees were given a free mobile phone along with a free Family Mobile SIM card with £5 credit pre-loaded on 5 August 2008.

Manufacturing

Although IKEA household products and furniture are designed in Sweden, they are largely manufactured in developing countries to keep down costs. With suppliers in 50 countries, roughly 2/3 of purchasing is from Europe with about 1/3 from Asia. A small amount of products are produced in North America. Comparatively little production actually takes place in Sweden, though it still remains the fourth-largest supplier country (behind China, Poland and Italy). China accounts for about 2.5 times as much supply as Sweden. For most of its products, the final assembly is performed by the end-user (consumer).[Source : www.wikipedia.org]

Integrated Information Achitecture

Ikea’s actual approach to information is managed in different ways, according to the context: either the products’ catalogue, the website or the retail stores.

They begin by choosing their products at home on the website or on the paper catalogue, then they collect their products at the store, and the final step would be to assemble the items by themselves.

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For this reason it is even more important to create bridge experiences, which facilitate the passage from one domain to another.

– The Catalogue

The annual products’ catalogue is built on a hierarchic-enumerating classification: 15 classes highlighted by different colours and relative subclasses.

Characteristics:

Use of several division’s criteria.
Interference of different categories causing products’ repetitions displays.
No hierarchical relation of some subclasses with related classes (for example Flooring is under the class Textiles).
Labelling imprecision, found in the Italian catalogue, causes confusion and doubts, then…

“We can affirm that the catalogue’s information architecture is theoretically incoherent and chaotic, from a scientific point of view”

– The Matter of Coherence

Does this classification works anyway for Ikea customers?
Is it suitable for Ikea context?

  1. The main catalogue’s classes are created on customer’s demands and human cognitive models. For example:A potential buyer looking for a double bed will normally refer to the class “Bedroom”. But if the same customer wants to buy a cot for his baby, the same category wouldn’t be so obvious. The class “Children’s IKEA”, in this case, is a more appropriate reference.
  2. The categories’ order follows the degree of importance: the first ones are the most marketable according to business strategies and sales.

“The taxonomy is perfectly coherent

from the empiric-pragmatic point

of view,which is the most

important to make the information

retrieval easier”


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– Redesigning The Catalogue

In order to overcome the hierarchical relations’ infraction and ambiguous labelling problems, it’s important:
to create clear and suitable labels in appropriate language
to establish subclasses for each class in order to respect human mental associations
to avoid classes’ crossover

So, the new catalogue’s taxonomy should introduce these changes:
Kitchen” and “Dining” categories can be combined, as it happens inside the retail store. The same criterion can be used for “Wardrobes” and “Beds”: people usually associate them because of a matter of space. Someone who decides to buy furniture at Ikea, probably is not the owner of a big, luxury house.
Bigger attention to imprecise labels translation (found in the Italian catalogue) which may lead to misunderstandings and wrong interpretation.
Elimination of “Buying guides” category at the end of the catalogue. The technical information would be better consultable if attached at the end of each.

Source :

– Davide Potente & Erika Salvini, “Apple, IKEA and their integrated information Architecture” Presentation. Europe’s Fourth Information Architecture Summit Amsterdam, September 26-27 2008. Available at http://davidepotente.com/apple_ikea_integrated_ia.pdf


Managing Human Resources

December 5, 2008

Introduction

Most firm do not recruit such loyal and motivated employees, but these (Human Resources Management) are vital tasks in any organization. This chapter focuseson the quantity and quality of human resources. First we look at how human resources plan for, recruit, and select qualified employees. Next we look at training, appraising, and compresanting employees, aspect of  HRM designed to retain valued employees. Along the way, we’ll also consider the challanges of managing unionized and diverse employees.

The Nature of  Human Resources Management

HRM refers to all activities involved in determining an organizations human resources needs as well as acquiring, training, and compensating people to fill those needs.

HRM has increased in importance over the last few decades, in part because managers have developed a better understanding of human relation through the work of Maslow, Herzberg, and others. Moreover, the human resources themselves are changing. Employees today are concerned not only about how much a job pays; they are concerned also with job satisfaction, personal performance, leisure, the environment, and the future.

Planning for HRM

Next, managers analyze the job within the organization so they can match the human resorces to the available assignments.

Job Analysis refers to the determination through observation and study, of pertinent information about a job including specific tasks and necessary abilities, knowledge and skills.

Job Description refers to a formal, written explanation of a specific job, usually including job title, task, relationship with other job, physical and mental skills required duties and responsibilities, and working conditions.

Job Specification refers to a description of the qualification necassary for a specific job, in terms of education, experience, and personal and physical characteristic.

to be continue…

Source :

Ferrell, Hirt & Ferrel.2008. Business : A Changing World. New York : McGraw-Hill International Edition.