Indonesian Public Transportation : PT. Pelayaran Nasional Indonesia

January 10, 2009
The View of Indonesian Public Transportation

Transportation is kind of important things in every country, even for development country like Indonesia. Transportation in Indonesia is also public services that needs by the public for traveling, going outside the city or going somewhere.

Transportation in Indonesia divided into three categories; sea transportation, land transportation and air transportation. This topic will explain an objectives from Indonesian shipping and public transportation across the sea.

PT. Pelayaran Nasional Indonesia (Pelni)

The company was incorporated in 1950 under the name of Yayasan Penguasaan Pusat Kapal-kapal (PEPUSKA/Foundation of Main Authority for Ships) by legally from Surat Keputusan Bersama (SKB/Joining Letter) by the Minister of Transportation and Minister of Public Development.

During the years before 1950s, The Netherlands Government refused Indonesia’s concept to convert their Ships Company by the name of N.V. K.P.M (Koninklijke Paketvaart Matschappij) into a private company.

The concept also mentioned that all operational ships must using Indonesia National Flag. This idea was totally rejected by The Netherlands Government.Onwards, the rejection does not decrease the spirit for Indonesia. In spite of, consist with 8 ships with total 4800 DWT (death weight ton), PEPUSKA story was such a success that the business was continuing and expanded. PEPUSKA ships sails together with N.V. K.P.M ships that already had experienced more than half century.

That was some unfair business. N.V. K.P.M had more ships than PEPUSKA does, and also N.V. K.P.M already monopoly some business contract in shipment.Finally, On April 28th 1952, in addition to its operation, management recognized growing opportunities in the shipment business. On that date, PEPUSKA being dismissed and Indonesia opened its first state shipment private company called PT. PELNI based on three legal letters Surat Keputusan Menteri Perhubungan (Minister of Transportation) No. M.2/1/2 dated February 28th 1952, No. A.2/1/2 dated April 19th 1952, and Berita Negara Republik Indonesia No. 50 dated June 20th 1952.

PT PELNI appointed its first President Director is Mr. R. Ma’moen Soemadipraja (1952-1955)The Company (PT. PELNI) found it difficult to compete with only 8 boats from PEPUSKA as a beginning. So, Export Import Indonesia Bank lending funds for PELNI to bought 45 coasters from Western Europe. As the company wait for those coasters arrival, PELNI rented some overseas flag ships.

This procedure was taken to fulfill empty route inherit from KPM. After that one by one the rented ships was replaced by the coasters and some of them also fulfilled by the Japanese boats taken from war action.

To provide the capital to further its growth, PT. PELNI changed their status from public into Government Company in 1961 based on Lembaran Negara RI No. LN 1961. In 1975, the Company changed its status again into a Private Company based on Akte Pendirian No. 31 dated October 30th, 1975. This history is written on Berita Negara RI No. 562-1976 and addendum No. 60 dated June 27th, 1976.As time goes by and competition, in the late 1975 the company changed their status based on Akta Pendirian No. 31 dated October 30th, 1975 and Akte Perubahan No. 22 dated March 4th, 1998. This changing is published on Berita Negara Republik Indonesia dated April 16th, 1999 and addendum No. 2203.

Main Business

PT. PELNI main business is to provide sea mass transportation that covered passenger and goodies transport amongst the island in Indonesia. Today they operate more than 28 units of passenger ship transport that classified as follows: 3.000 pax, 2.000 pax, 1.000 pax, and 500 pax of passenger capacity, The Ro-Ro type (Roll on – Roll off) and 1 unit of high speed ferry with overall capacity in total of 36.913 passengers. Besides, we also operate of 4 unit goodies ship transport with total of DWT (Death Weight Tonnage) is 1.200 tons.Indonesia total areas consist of 17.503 islands.

That’s why Indonesia sea transportation is needed because those islands were connected by the sea. According to the SK Dirjen Perla no. AT 55/I/8/DJPL-06 dated April 5th, 2006, PELNI must follow and provide routes for Indonesia sea transportation. Total region and place is 91 harbors with 47 branch offices and more than 300 travel agents throughout Indonesia.To fulfill our missions and goals is the company responsibility to connect even to the further island in Indonesia (President Statement No. 78, 2005 about connecting small and remote island). Besides, our other goal is to take benefit from Indonesia Nature Resources to make continuous community development.

Other Business:
Side Business
* Pelni Hospital
* Cipayung Guest House

Supporting Business

* Master Transportation
* Ship Agency
* Ship DockSubsidiary Company
* PT. SBN : Dock Loading
* PT. PIDC : Freight Forwarding.

some resources taken from:
www.pelni.co.id


Public Administration Paradox & Transformation

December 24, 2008

Public Administration Paradox

The Public Administration at the third millenium has changed from global, national or local platforms to politics, economics and cultural perspectives which is if we take some examples from any develop countries , there is a simultaneous process of changing that moves faster, chains systems reactions and makes global effects. Technology, another variables that cannot be left by the administrators, has different effects and developments in the government works such as e-government, online systems, etc. By the technology assistance, the government circles of works can be adapted to face any global changes at any scope.

Entering the third millenium, structures and values of the public administration can be looked from three perspectives : political democracy, societal transformation and technological progress.

The values, divided into two aspects. First, is social values that involves public participations and democracy to challenge the structure of authority and control. Second, is the basic values of public administration, such a public policy, public finance, organization and management, etc.

The question is how the core of public administration connected with values and needs in the large community, for example a state?

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The Transformations of The Concepts

1. First Transformation

There is a complex differentiation between public administration function and social needs. The differentiation must be broken in the changing lines to be two aspects : structure and hierarchy.

To make the successful public administration, the first step is to search the scale and complexity of modern government then we know how is public administration will work in the state. Two, public administration that settles in the states should absorb the process effectively to accomplish a goal. Finally, public administration needs to be develop and increase the government working systems.

2. Second Transformation

Structure and hierarchy have to be transformed to another levels. The previous government’s perspectives of public needs and public services should be changed to a “new one” perspective. The answers are networking and stakeholders’ participation.

With the works of networking, government can make a good relationship with another groups, for example government from another country, private sectors, investors, and the shareholders’ stocks and bonds.

Stakeholders participation also have a good idea to make the better works of the government, because this elite groups needs to think about public needs and development as well as the government does, for a better future.


Administrasi Publik di Swedia

December 22, 2008

Penulis mendapatkan ide penulisan artikel ini dari beberapa teman yang berasal dari Jankoping, Swedia serta perkuliahan dari Bapak Pius Suratman Kartasasmita, Ph.D di Universitas Katolik Parahyangan, Bandung sekitar tahun 2006.

Administrasi Publik sebagai sebuah sistem serta model pemerintahan memberikan gambaran sebuah negara berikut dengan sistem pemerintahan, birokrasi dan parlemen. Swedia, salah satu negara di kawasan Skandinavia dapat dijadikan pembanding dalam hal sistem administrasi publik, khusus nya dengan Indonesia.

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Swedia adalah negara demokratik dengan sistem parlementer yang disebut dengan The Riksdag. Swedia juga merupakan negara monarki dengan raja nya yaitu, King Carl XVI Gustaf. Sistem pemerintahan dipegang langsung oleh perdana menteri, namun meski begitu King Carl XVI Gustaf tetap memiliki kekuatan politik yang cukup besar, serta merepresentasikan sebuah kekuasaan.

The Riksdag dengan 149 anggota nya, merumuskan kebijakan-kebijakan pajak, pengeluaran anggaran pemerintah, serta mendukung kegiatan pemerintah.

The Riksdag juga menunjuk perdana menteri, yang kemudian menyusun kabinet beserta menteri-menteri nya. Bersama dengan perdana menteri, The Riksdag juga membentuk sebuah pemerintahan. Pemerintahan yang mengatur negara bertanggung jawab kepada The Riskdag.

Kemudian, keputusan-keputusan politik diimplementasikan oleh beberapa pemegang kekuasaan, yaitu administrasi dan perusahaan publik (BUMN).

Sistem Administrasi Pemerintahan di Swedia : Bentuk Tiga Tingkatan

Swedia memiliki tiga tahapan di pemerintahannya yaitu: Nasional, Regional dan Lokal. Sebagai tambahan, ini adalah bentuk yang dibutuhkan di Eropa untuk kepentingan setelah Swedia masuk ke dalam Uni-Eropa. Pemilihan umum atas anggota dewan pusat dan daerah diselenggarakan setiap 4 tahun, para pemilih memilih siapa yang akan duduk di pemerintahan dan administrasi.

Level Nasional

Pada Level Nasional, masyarakat Swedia direpresentasikan oleh The Riksdag yang memiliki kekuatan legislatif (DPR). Rancangan Undang-Undang yang dibuat oleh pemerintah yang berupa implementasi-implementasi pengambilan keputusan disahkan oleh The Riksdag. Pemerintah mendapatkan bantuan dari The Riksdag dalam menjalankan negara, menentukan jumlah kementerian, dan 300 agen pemerintah pusat dan persoalan administrasi publik.

Level Regional

Swedia di bagi atas 21 propinsi (negara bagian). Persoalan politik di dalam level ini dipegang oleh Dewan propinsi, yang merupakan para pembuat keputusan yang di pilih langsung oleh masyarakat setempat. Beberapa kekuasaan publik juga dioperasikan pada level regional dan local, contohnya adalah permasalahan perbatasan propinsi.

Level Lokal

Swedia memiliki 290 kabupaten / daerah (municipalities). Setiap daerah memiliki agenda pemilihan sendiri, dewan daerah, yang mengambil keputusan dalam masalah-masalah daerah. Dewan daerah membentuk dewan eksekutif daerah, yang memimpin dan mengkoordinasikan pekerjaan daerah.

Tambahan : Level Eropa

Ketika masuk ke dalam Uni-Eropa pada tahun 1995, Swedia membentuk level pemerintahan yang berkelanjutan : level eropa. Sebagai anggota Uni-Eropa, Swedia bertugas dalam mengambil bagian di dalam proses pembuatan keputusan ketika peraturan persemakmuran disusun dan disetujui.

Sweden Continent

Swedia juga direpresentasikan oleh pemerintahannya di dalam kementerian untuk dewan eropa yang mana merupakan anggota dari struktur pembuat keputusan di dalam Uni-Eropa.

Divisi Pertanggungjawaban antar level dari pemerintah

Konstitusi Swedia memiliki hak provisi dalam mendefinisikan hubungan antara pembuat keputusan dan kekuatan eksekutif. Pemerintahan lokal swedia tahun 1992 meregulasikan divisi ini kedalam minicipalities dan organisasi serta kekuatan municipalities dan dewan daerah.

Divisi ini dibagi berdasarkan tugas antara pemerintahan pusat dan daerah yang telah berubah selama beberapa tahun belakangan ini. Aktivfitasnya secara langsung telah didelegasikan dari pemerintah pusat ke pemerintah daerah.

Pemerintah telah menunjuk komite parlemen, komite pertanggungjawaban sektor publik, yang telah diinstruksikan untuk mengawasi divisi pertanggungjawaban antar level pemerintahan.

Sources :
Swedish Public Administration – http://www.sjv.se/home/swedishpublicadministration.4.7502f61001ea08a0c7fff131176.html
http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2858